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This is a copy of the homily given at Holy Name Church on Sun 21st September, 12pm Mass.  Gospel Matt 20:1-16, First Reading Isaiah 55:6-9

Why be envious because I am generous?

1360aPerhaps today’s gospel is the most unpopular parable by Jesus that is recorded in the Gospel.  It is a story that when we listen to it offends our sense of justice.  Why do those who have done one hours work get paid the same as those that have done a heavy days work in the heat of the day?  It doesn’t seem fair. You can understand how upset you might feel if that happened to you.  It is very annoying when we are waiting patiently in a queue and someone walks to front and jumps the queue.  It is not fair. What is Jesus trying to tell us in this parable?  Things seem to be unfair ……..Sometimes the richest parts of the scriptures are those that we have to wrestle with – were it is not so simple to grasp the meaning -

When we focus on God in this parable – God  is tireless in his desire for souls   – he is seeking out for labourers all day – he is happy to hire the rejects and desires to pay them a full days wage –    he is happy to bring into the vineyard those who had given up hope, those who had been discarded. This image of God is underlined in the first reading of Isaiah – God is rich in his forgiving . Compare this rich, generous God, merciful and free with the self centeredness of the labourers.  How quickly they have a sense of entitlement – forgetting to be grateful for their employment. The disgruntled labourers have become self focused – self centred – like children complaining – with a  narrow sense of justice – Feeling sorry themselves they are obsessed with the latecomers.

It is when we are limited by our human selfishness, with our narrow sense of Justice – when we are victims of a narrow self centeredness  that the words of the first reading are so powerful – god says in Isaiah ‘my thoughts are not your thoughts –  the heavens are as high above the earth as my ways are above your ways, my thoughts above your thoughts’. 

This difference between how God sees the world and how we see the world – is referred to by St Ignatius as consolation and desolation.  When we start to glimpse the world as God sees it – in a loving creative way, in a free way, in a way full of hope and possibility, and we start to live our lives from this vision – we call this spiritual consolation.  When we are mean spirited, with a narrow sense of justice, with start to resent others generosity, we can become narrower and narrower.  When we forget to be grateful for so many gifts and blessings in our life, we become like the grumbling labourers in the Gospel – turning on the one who has given us so much.

Why be envious because I am generous?

So as this academic year starts in the universities, as a new political year starts with party conference season, let us make an honest and searching examination of conscience,  Where have I become mean spirited in my life?  How am I like the grumbling workers?   Who’s generosity and who’s goodness have I become envious of?

With all these new beginnings, Let us be sure to surround ourselves with people who inspire us with generosity, who are open, who are loving, and avoid those who draw us into that narrowness.  IF we keep our focus on God we will be drawn out of ourselves.

AMDG

P1050059This a month of exciting new beginnings and sad farewells in Manchester.  When I started this job the provincial used a great image of the university chaplain being like the person who stands at the feeding station at the marathon.  You are there to give whatever help you can and then they are gone …. flying past, into the adventure of life.  We have already met some wonderful new students in welcome week – and I am filled with optimism for the year ahead.  We have great potential to build a special community.  However that optimism is tinged with sadness as we say farewell to some special friends.  One in particular has gone back to Damascus to be a lecturer.  As there are no flights into Syria – her father met her in Beirut and they drove across the border together.  We have all been praying for her on this dangerous journey – but she arrived back safe, and has sent us an email that I have permission to share ( an edited version)

 

Dear Fathers, I hope you are all well and in good health. I arrived to Damascus on Thursday; it was a long but safe journey. Today I went with my dad to university because I do not feel confident enough to be on my own in a city that I no longer know. Damascus has changed so much. Most women wear veils and this makes me feel very sick and very angry. Public transport is quite expensive because of the situation. It is relatively safe in my town where I live with my family. In the city centre and near university it is quite safe at the moment.  I still feel very scared every time I hear the M16, drones and all sort of weapons. It seems talking about weapons has become very familiar here among people. Relatives come to see me and all they talk about is weapons or war. I went to a small catholic church near my house this evening; it was lovely to be there and to be able to say the liturgy in Arabic. I do miss Holy Name.  I have to start preparing and designing my lectures.  Please do stay in touch!  May God bless you all and deliver you from every evil.  United in Jesus,  ******* .

So we keep her in our prayers at daily mass and her family – I have told her that she will be one of the keys in rebuilding Syria and bringing peace back.  Turning back to Manchester  I spied a great bit of advice for new Catholic students on the Jesuit homepage, created by Henry Longbottom who was with us for a few months.  It is an excellent reflection…. pass it on.

AMDG

This letter from Marquette University 1996 graduate and journalist James Foley was published in Marquette Magazine’s fall 2011 issue after he returned safely from Libya, where he had been captured. Foley was kidnapped again in November 2012 while covering the Syrian civil war. He was executed this week by Islamic militants.

26514236-mjs_foley_02_nws_wood_foley-2b6q92oMarquette University has always been a friend to me. The kind who challenges you to do more and be better and ultimately shapes who you become.  With Marquette, I went on some volunteer trips to South Dakota and Mississippi and learned I was a sheltered kid and the world had real problems. I came to know young people who wanted to give their hearts for others. Later I volunteered in a Milwaukee junior high school up the street from the university and was inspired to become an inner-city teacher. But Marquette was perhaps never a bigger friend to me than when I was imprisoned as a journalist. Myself and two colleagues had been captured and were being held in a military detention centre in Tripoli. Each day brought increasing worry that our moms would begin to panic. My colleague, Clare, was supposed to call her mom on her birthday, which was the day after we were captured. I had still not fully admitted to myself that my mom knew what had happened. But I kept telling Clare my mom had a strong faith.

I prayed she’d know I was OK. I prayed I could communicate through some cosmic reach of the universe to her. I began to pray the rosary. It was what my mother and grandmother would have prayed. I said 10 Hail Marys between each Our Father. It took a long time, almost an hour to count 100 Hail Marys off on my knuckles. And it helped to keep my mind focused. Clare and I prayed together out loud. It felt energizing to speak our weaknesses and hopes together, as if in a conversation with God, rather than silently and alone. Later we were taken to another prison where the regime kept hundreds of political prisoners. I was quickly welcomed by the other prisoners and treated well. One night, 18 days into our captivity, some guards brought me out of the cell. In the hall I saw Manu, another colleague, for the first time in a week. We were haggard but overjoyed to see each other. Upstairs in the warden’s office, a distinguished man in a suit stood and said, “We felt you might want to call your families.”

download (7)I said a final prayer and dialled the number. My mom answered the phone. “Mom, Mom, it’s me, Jim.” “Jimmy, where are you?”-“I’m still in Libya, Mom. I’m sorry about this. So sorry.” – “Don’t be sorry, Jim,” she pleaded. “Oh, Daddy just left. Oh … He so wants to talk to you. How are you, Jim?” I told her I was being fed, that I was getting the best bed and being treated like a guest. – “Are they making you say these things, Jim?” – “No, the Libyans are beautiful people,” I told her. “I’ve been praying for you to know that I’m OK,” I said. “Haven’t you felt my prayers?” – “Oh, Jimmy, so many people are praying for you. All your friends, Donnie, Michael Joyce, Dan Hanrahan, Suree, Tom Durkin, Sarah Fang have been calling. Your brother Michael loves you so much.” She started to cry. “The Turkish embassy is trying to see you and also Human Rights Watch. Did you see them?” I said I hadn’t. – “They’re having a prayer vigil for you at Marquette. Don’t you feel our prayers?” she asked. – “I do, Mom, I feel them,” and I thought about this for a second. Maybe it was others’ prayers strengthening me, keeping me afloat. The official made a motion. I started to say goodbye. Mom started to cry. “Mom, I’m strong. I’m OK. I should be home by Katie’s graduation,” which was a month away. “We love you, Jim!” she said. Then I hung up.  I replayed that call hundreds of times in my head — my mother’s voice, the names of my friends, her knowledge of our situation, her absolute belief in the power of prayer. She told me my friends had gathered to do anything they could to help. I knew I wasn’t alone.

My last night in Tripoli, I had my first Internet connection in 44 days and was able to listen to a speech Tom Durkin gave for me at the Marquette vigil. To a church full of friends, alums, priests, students and faculty, I watched the best speech a brother could give for another. It felt like a best man speech and a eulogy in one. It showed tremendous heart and was just a glimpse of the efforts and prayers people were pouring forth. If nothing else, prayer was the glue that enabled my freedom, an inner freedom first and later the miracle of being released.

AMDG

During these weeks we are following the story of Ezekiel in the readings at mass.  Some of the readings and the violence of God are very challenging, especially at a time when our news bulletins are full of stories of religious violence.   A sign of a good preacher is not to avoid the challenging readings but to tackle them face on.  Last week we had an excellent reflection from Karen Eliasen – one of the team at St Beuno’s.  Karen has given me permission to share it on the blog.  

Ent. antiphon: “Arise, O God, and defend your cause, and forget not the cries of those who seek you.”  

Karen Eliasen, St Beuno’s

80All this week, and next week, we have readings from the Book of Ezekiel. Ezekiel himself comes across as many things: he’s part prophet, part priest, part visionary mystic, part plain old madman. But however we label him, Ezekiel is above all someone who is in continuous dialogue with God. The whole of the Book of Ezekiel bristles with passionate exchanges between God and this mad prophet. Mostly these exchanges are about people doing wrong, and about what God is doing about people doing wrong. In today’s reading, we encounter a terrifying God, terrifying because he is furious at his own people, and he’s furious because his people are doing wrong. And so in his fury, God commands death for them. “Kill and exterminate them all,” God shouts to a group of armed men. God commands death for his own people, and the command is carried out; all is destroyed, and Ezekiel is witness to this:  Jerusalem is laid waste, the Temple is burnt to the ground, the people are starved, slaughtered, hauled into exile. These are the events that Ezekiel is writing out of – extreme, drastic events of unimaginable violence. And it is such events that Ezekiel and God are having their passionate exchanges about. God’s people are doing wrong; but what kind of a God then makes everything, everything – come to such an end? Will God not show pity, will he not show mercy, at all? Ezekiel, like God, is angry; but he is also concerned about God’s seeming lack of mercy.

Now we might easily convince ourselves that this merciless God lunging out at us from the pages of Ezekiel has little to do with the God of the Gospels. Here is what Jesus in today’s Matthew Gospel has to say about people doing wrong: “If your brother does something wrong, go and have it out with him alone” … talk it over, and if that doesn’t work, go and tell the community. And if that doesn’t work … well there is a cool, calm, and collected legal system in place to deal with it. Dealing with people who do wrong is not to be fuelled by the fury of a great armed anger, but by law. At least that’s how it is if you are a human being. But what if you are not a human being. What if you are God? What if you are Ezekiel’s God? This is not a God different from Jesus’ God. The God who is at the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple is the same God who is at the crucifixion of Jesus. And this same God is Lord not only of death but Lord also of life. For we all know very well that Ezekiel’s God not only commands death, he also promises us life – he promises us new hearts and rivers flowing with living waters, he promises his people a covenant of peace, of shalom. Just like the God of the Gospels, who is there at the crucifixion, does.

3_11_2010_christians_iraqSo when we find ourselves far from shalom, even find ourselves in extreme and drastic circumstances far beyond law, when it feels like our whole world is being undone, what about God then? How do we, like Ezekiel, even begin to exchange words with God then? What is our prayer then? Scripture has one hope: we can cry out. Like the Israelites in Egypt, we can cry out. That’s the very prayer we heard in the entrance antiphon today– did you catch that plea right at the beginning of Mass just now: “Arise, O God, and defend your cause, and forget not the cries of those who seek you.” Let us not forget the cries of those who seek God –  including ourselves.

Ezekiel 9:1-7; 10:18-22; Mt 18:15-20

AMDG

Pope-Francis-South-KoreaAs Pope Francis beatifies 124 martyrs from Korea today, with huge crowds turning out in Seoul to meet the Pope, it may be opportune to look at unique origins of the church in Korea.  Catholicism has grown rapidly in South Korea from 1% of the population ten years ago to over 10% now.  South Korea is a fascinating country that has seen rapid development and economic growth.  It is  the only country in the history of the world that has gone from being a foreign aid recipient to being a major foreign aid donor in only one generation.  It also has huge ‘soft power’ now, not only as the home of Samsung. and being a technology leader in many fields – but also in the popularity of their films, soap operas and music – Remember Gangnam Style? K-Pop has overtaken Japan’s J Pop as the music on the iphones in the Pacific Rim and further afield.  I remember when I was in the Philippines I would often ask the young people which country they  would most like to visit, and the answer universally wasn’t US, or the UK but South Korea.

The origins of the Catholic Church in Korea are fascinating.  Christianity has struggled to make inroads into Asia – and the exceptions – Philippines, East Timor which received Spanish and Portuguese missionaries,  the Korean Catholic Church grew for the first hundred years without any priests or visits from missionaries. Christianity was brought to Korea by a Korean diplomat who had encountered the books of Matteo Ricci in the court in Beijing.  Ricci is an incredible character, an Italian Jesuit, who missionary work was so successful that he gained access to the Forbidden City – the first westerner to do so.  His appreciation of Chinese culture and the peoples admiration of him as a learned scholar gave Ricci great inroads.  He was the first to translate Kong Fuzi’s teachings into Latin – thus coining the name Confucius – Ricci became a bridge between the east and the west.

ricciThe book that probably marks his greatest legacy was ‘The true meaning of the Lord of Heaven’ which argues that Confucianism and Christianity are not opposed and in fact are remarkably similar in key ways.  It was a way of explaining Christian doctrine into Confucian thought and proved to be very successful.  Ricci used this treatise in his missionary effort to convert Chinese intellectuals, men who were educated in Confucianism and the Chinese classics.   It was this book that brought Christianity to Korea in 1603, where it was to grow, without access to the sacraments, without any active priestly ministry.

AMDG

14415774496_6eeb3942fa_mBoth the first week and the third week of the exercises focus us on the reality of disorder in the world – in our own lives (in the first week) and the disorder and violence that leads to Christ Passion and death in the third week.  The horrific flood of headlines at the moment about so much violence in the world, fuelled by land and religion.  The suffering of the most vulnerable, the poor, women and children, remind us that to be in denial about sin in the world is irresponsible.  What has changed though is the advent of social media – that as more and more of us live our lives on-line, we are leaving a record of our actions and experiences for good or ill.  Andrew Keen , in his excellent book ‘Digital Vertigo’, claims that we are now living in an age of exhibitionism – and it seems that what we are exhibiting is not always good and noble.

The last couple of years I have been giving talks to students and teachers about the importance of cleaning up their ‘digital footprint’.  A chaplain I worked with once, was very good at being a benign presence on social  media.  He would often log on – on a Sat morning and gently suggest that drunken photos might want to be deleted.  I often remind students that when they apply for a job, their CV’s are less important to their employers than their facebook profile.  I have heard countless stories of how prospective employers have binned piles of CV’s without even looking at them after exploring the candidates Digital Footprint.

Recently what has been shocking has been the use of ISIS of social media as a way of spreading fear.   Videos and pictures posted on the internet – of grisly beheadings, summary executions are shockingly mainstream.  It maybe one of the reasons that the Iraqi army crumbled so quickly whilst the ISIS forces advanced so rapidly.  When these shocking videos started appearing on the internet during the Chechen War, it was pretty difficult to stumble upon them, now they appear on twitter feeds and facebook updates without warning. They should be taken down as soon as they can.  And when these ‘tourist’ jihadists return home the evidence they have indicted themselves with should be used to convict them of war crimes.  Interestingly this article argues that images on a Russian Soldiers Instagram account seem to offer evidence that could point towards Russian involvement of the Malayasian Airline tragedy.

AMDG   

download (4)Today we are moving into the Third Week of the Exercises – where we contemplate Christ in his Passion.  It is a ‘test’ of discipleship and any elections made in the Second Week.  Often a dry and difficult period in prayer – as the mystery of the cross is so difficult to penetrate.  Luckily we have a great saint today – Edith Stein.  I am privileged to be celebrating mass today too, so this is my reflection on this great woman.

On the eve of the third millennium, John Paul II named three women as new patrons of Europe, one of them was St Theresa Benedicta of the Cross, Edith Stein.  She was a saint of the second millennium, who would accompany us into the third millennium, the Pope said.

Why was Edith Stein so close to the Popes heart?  Why did he feel she was such a powerful patron for us as we entered the new millennium?

It may be helpful to think of three stages to Edith’s Life  1) The towering intellect and public genius   2) Conversion and an irresistible call to a hidden contemplative life      3) Her embrace of the cross and Confronting evil in Auschwitz…. And in this incredible journey she synthesised the dramatic history of the twentieth century in her own heart.

The first part of her life was a journey from Judaism to atheism, of outstanding intellectual achievements, as a pupil and then teaching assistant of the famous phenomenologist Husserl who supported her ambition to be the first female professor – she was fascinated with truth and with empathy, the subject of her doctoral dissertation.  She had built a great intellectual tower – but she did not stay on top of it looking down at the rest of us – like so many of the so called ‘new atheists’

World War One intervened – she worked as a nurse  – but the moment when her unbelief collapsed was when one of her colleagues was killed in Flanders.  She visited his widow and encountered a women with deep faith –  This was in her own words:  My first encounter with the cross and the divine power that it imparts to those who bear it .    ….……  This was a generation whose experience of War had penetrated their hearts, and the search for truth was not a merely intellectual exercise

download (5)So the second phase of her life began – resuming lecturing after the War – she read the New testament, and Kierkegaard and interestingly the Spiritual Exercises – all of which made a deep impression on her (notice she only read the Exercises – she didn’t make them)   However the  breakthrough was when visiting a friend she picked up the biography of St Teresa of Avila and read it all night –  at the end she simply said ‘this is the truth’  – she was to be baptised a Catholic and her work became a combination of Scholarship and Faith ….. ten years later she entered the contemplative Carmelite life – and took up the religious name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.

Like our own Hopkins – she was to stop writing as she enthusiastically immersed herself into religious life.  This self-imposed silence was to finish as she published a book called ‘The Science of the Cross’ to mark the 400th anniversary of St John of the Cross birth…..  This immersion into the mystery of the Cross was to be prophetic as she was to imitate her beloved Jesus …..

He turned his face to Jerusalem and his passion – she was to be taken to Auschwitz with her sister who had followed her into ‘Carmel’ .  The rounding up of Jewish converts was in retaliation to the Dutch Bishops letter condemning Nazism and its ethnic cleansing.  Her last words to her sister were Come we are going with our people’ as they were rounded up with 987 Jewish Christians and sent today to the gas chambers.

So three steps – from an intellectual tower, to a silent life of adoration and then this profound welcoming of the cross.

One of my fellow Jesuits said yesterday – so many of us want Christianity without the cross – let us pray with Teresa Benedicta that we learn to serve our crucified Lord.

AMDG

images (3)At the heart of the Second Week of the Exercises – is making an ‘election’ – i.e. answering the question how should I lead my life.  This can be a formal election, e.g. shall I marry this person, shall I make this career change, shall I enter religious life, or an informal election – shall I recommit myself to my work, shall I tweak this or tweak that i.e. should we be more focused on the poor etc.  The type and gravity of the election will dictate the time spent on it.   We can learn a lot from this process about decision making in general, even the day to day decision we make about what we invest our time and energy in.   What is brilliant about the exercises is that it creates the conditions of inner freedom and attentiveness that allow these decisions to be made on a sound footing.

Recent discoveries about how we make decisions – for good and for bad –  are fascinating but also echo certain movements already there in the exercises, which perhaps explaining how Ignatian Spirituality is growing in popularity and seems so relevant to so many people.   For instance the research of Nobel Prize winning Economist Daniel Kahneman is fascinating.  Counter intuitively Kahneman points out how so much of decision making process is not – rational.  For instance he talks about the difference between our remembering self and our experiencing self.  For instance we may enjoy a wonderful holiday for 12 days and then something happens at the end, a big blow up row with a companion,  a delay at the airport, an accident that ruins that last couple of days is what we remember.  So ignoring our experiencing self  ’12 days of happiness and relaxation’, we write the holiday off as a disaster.  Worryingly Kahnemann says that it is our remembering self that makes future decisions.

booksSimilarly when faced with a choice to make about the future, surprisingly maybe, fear seems to operate more effectively than hope. Specifically aversion to loss seems to operates much more strongly than the benefits that can accrue if we change. This is a significant barrier to inner freedom,  and can tie us down to the past, and it works even more strongly at an institutional level than it does at an individual level.   This ‘loss aversion’ – that the disadvantages of change loom larger than the advantages of change –  and the significance of our remembering self explain why Ignatius puts such a premium on ‘magnanimity’ and generosity of spirit as we enter the Exercises.  The disposition days are precisely to allow this inner freedom to grow before the retreat formally starts.  Remembering with gratitude is particularly important, and a grace that we pray for, knowing that we cannot do it on our own.

 

AMDG

Tracy_Caldwell_Dyson_in_Cupola_ISSAt the beginning of the Second Week of the Exercises Ignatius presents us with the Contemplation on the Incarnation.  This has two main elements, he asks to us imagine the Trinity looking down on the world, seeing  and hearing all that is happening, births, deaths, wars, peace etc…   The decision to intervene by seconding the second person of the Trinity (the Son) is made.  Then in the contemplation, we zoom in, Google Earth style, to Mary’s house in Nazareth and the Angel visiting her.  Mary’s ‘Fiat’ – her Yes – is one word that history turns on.  We know how courageous this ‘yes’ is for young women in a culture that has brutal punishments for those unmarried women who bring shame no their families.

bbc-nativity-maryMary’s fiat - ‘ Let it be done unto me’  – is central in the Catholic understanding of the Incarnation – she gives her assent to cooperate with Divine Grace.  I remember being invited to watch a preview of the BBC produced ‘Nativity‘ in Soho in 2010 – it is an excellent production that was shown in four parts.  After the preview some of the producers bounded up to me – seeing that I had been visibly moved and wanted to know my reaction.  I said I thought it had been brilliant but that they had made one mistake. The wide grins started to fade and with furrowed brows they asked me what mistake –  I replied ‘ Well in this version Mary said no to the angel’ …. the brows became more furrowed and the smiles vanished,   moving on to the next person, they said indignantly ‘there’s no right or wrong’.

A wonderful poem on Mary’s fiat is by Bishop Robert F Morneau ….. and yes I know this doesn’t take into account the Immaculate Conception (before you write in) …. but even if theologically not quite correct it opens a new vista onto Mary’s fiat…

 

Annunciation

Were others asked?
A lassie from an isle in a distant sea?
A maiden in North Africa
or a slave girl from the Congo?
How many times were angels sent
and returned, unheard, unheeded?
Was Mary tenth on salvation’s list.
Or the hundredth?
And you, my soul.
was fiat spoken
when the angel came?

 

AMDG

loyola2Thanks for all the messages on this feast of St Ignatius…..  I have fond memories of celebrating this feast in Tanzania in recent years with our pupils, and in India with the Dalits, and in Manchester with some of the students.  This year seems special, here at St. Beunos, in North Wales, directing the 30 days – in the silence of the Exercises, at the beginning of the Second Week.  Now our retreatants are praying for a growing interior knowledge of Christ. Having meditated on the Call of the King they are now contemplating, step by step, the life of Jesus.    After the intensity of the First Week it is a rich and vivid journey they are making, using imaginative contemplation. If we are to remember Ignatius for anything – it is not necessarily for the Jesuits, for our works, for the apostolates – Ignatius knew that we are founded to serve the church, to help souls.  Famously Ignatius said if we were to be disbanded it would take 15 mins in the chapel for him to reconcile himself to that.

The heart of St Ignatius is found most clearly in making the Exercises.   That is a legacy of his that we can never lose.  This uniquely transformative tool that has changed so many lives.  And in the privilege of giving the exercises, I feel very close to him.   One of the things we are encouraged to do is review our own notes of the Exercises we made in Tertianship.  I was in Manila – three years ago – and during the second week I read a biography of St Ignatius by the Basque Historian José  Tellechea Idígoras.  It is the best biography I have read.  I have been thinking a lot over the past few days about how Ignatius would ‘give’ the Exercises.  There were no retreat houses in his day, no en-suite facilities!  He would invite someone he had got know, for whom he thought it would be profitable. They would often stay in a spare room in his house and he would meet them after dinner to listen, to help and then set them points for the next day.  Maybe we need to renew that practice ourselves…..   and then there is beautiful description Idigoras leaves us with of Ignatius….  you can imagine him towards the end of his life…. perhaps leaving the house after having met his exercitant….

He wore a simple austere cassock and fought off the cold with a large cloak.  When he left the house he wore a voluminous cape and a broad brimmed hat with attached chords that he tied to his chin. It was impressive to see him walking in the street. He was always going, because of some business, to some specific place or to see some particular person. At this period in his life his fair hair had disappeared, he was bald and wore a short beard from which loomed an aquiline nose and high cheekbones.  His complexion had become darker, weather-beaten, perhaps even yellowish because of his liver ailment? His countenance, serious and peaceful, was the image of circumspection and a life lived interiorly. Some found it particularly luminous and expressive. His eyes which at one time had been sparkling and bright were now blurred by work, old age and copious tears. They had lost their gaiety but not their penetrating force. He seldom looked at people straight on.  When he did, however, people said he took in the person from head to toe. His gaze seemed to have the power of seeing straight through a person right into his heart. 

 

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