I have just spent a busy 24 hours in Bangalore accompanying one of students who may be getting surgery to straighten her spine. As I had other jobs to do, we took one of her teachers with us so that they wouldn’t be alone. It was a bit hectic, we had to rush around the city in rickshaws, meeting the doctor, getting an x-ray, going to a hospital to sort out the post-op care. Both the teacher and the student were only visiting Bangalore for the second time, and it was clear they preferred small town or village India to big city in India. What was particularly interesting was their commentaries and chatting about the amount of girls and young women they saw in Jeans or western style dress. There was a big discussion about Sari v Jeans and Sari definitely came out top in their eyes. This lead to a few long conversations about the role of women in India and it certainly was sobering and the question of fashion soon seemed to become irrelevant.
Back in March 2010, the Economist ran a striking cover story about what it called ‘Gendercide‘ responding the famous Indian Economist Amartya Sen claim that 100million baby girls have been killed through sex-selective abortions. Because of a variety of factors, the dowry system, traditional prejudices, need for physical labour, inheritance law, girls are clearly seen as less preferable to boys. As well as this ancient preference for a son, there is a modern desire for smaller families and cheap and widespread availability of ultrasound technology. This combined factors has led to a dramatic rise in sex selective abortions.
Unlike China, India’s democratic roots and civil service have set up an impressive infrastructure for elections and also data gathering, particularly through the 10-year census. The data is seen as reliable and detailed. It also very revealing. Currently in India the sex ratio according to 2011 census is 914 women per 1,000 men. It was 927 women per 1,000 men in 2001. According to The World Factbook this is the third most distorted sex ratio in the world after China and Armenia and it seems to be growing. The census data also reveals how cultural prejudices affect this. In both rural and urban India the Sikh community has the most distorted ratio (895 girls per 1000 boys). This is followed by Hindus (935), Muslim and Jains (940), Buddhist (955). It is only the Christian community that has more girls than boys (1009), but indications suggest that even that may be dropping.
Obviously the effects of this ‘gendercide’ could be profound on the community. In Northern States in India where the practice of sex selective abortion and also infanticide seems most common, they are already having to ‘import’ brides from other states. Son preference is most prevalent in an arc of countries from East Asia through South Asia to the Middle East and North Africa – however it seems highest in Asia. In fact it is only South Korea that seems to have recovered it sex ratio to from that equivalent to India in 1990 to approaching a more normal level today. The economic rise of South Korea, the only country to go from being an aid recipient to an aid donor in one generation, is well known. But is a change of culture that is leading to girls to be valued more.
This is another reason why education is so important, and the work being done here in Manvi so impressive. But there is still a lot to do, the Jesuits here have set up an impressive network of womens groups in the villages, such as the Devadasis pictured on the right. They value education more and will encourage the girls to go to school. But still there are deep problems. In a dramatic incident last week our social workers who have been developing a malnutrition programme had to rush a seriously malnourished baby girl to hospital. There is a lot of confusion around the case, they suspect food provided for her had been sold on, that the child may have HIV, and that the grandmother seemed to be blocking any effort to help her survive. From the (foriegn) social workers perspective, the family seemed happy to let her die. There is no proof to any of this, but it would not be a surprise in a culture where the difference between a boy and a girl can have a big effect in the lives of the poor. What is needed is faithful presence and the slow continuous work of changing hearts and minds. The British Governments arm for development (DFID) are offering large amounts of funding targeted at getting girls into and keeping them in education. It is called the Girls Education Challenge, and in a new departure funds that would usually go into government budgets and be wasted due to corruption are now being offered to the private sector. The Jesuits who already educate over 9,000 girls in Karnataka state, with over two thirds of them being from low caste and vulnerable backgrounds are well placed to use this funding to expand their educational work. In fact that was my other business in Bangalore.